Litterfall And Decomposition Mechanism

Each nylon mesh containing litterfall was collected and replaced monthly from early October 2012 to late September 2013. Litter decomposition and SOM stabilization can be affected by the identities of the soil organisms that perform decomposition. BIOTROPICA 40(3): 295–304 2008 10. What mechanisms are responsible for ecosystem change in these forests? We conducted a series of field studies quantifying soil N cycling, litterfall, and litter decomposition to begin addressing these questions. Soil Science Society of America Journal Abstract - Wheat Straw Composition and Placement Effects on Decomposition in Decomposition of chestnut litterfall and. Keywords—Litterfall, Litter decomposition, Carbon, Nitrogen, Land use, Huai Lam Kradon subwatershed. We did not measure duff, tree, shrub, and herbaceous fuel dynamics in this study because duff is a byprod-uct of decomposition and many studies have already quantified the growth and mortality of live fuels. Dent Æ Robert Bagchi Æ David Robinson Æ Noreen Majalap-Lee Æ David F. Together, these results show that both N addition and acidification can suppress decomposition rates, but likely for different reasons that may be linked to plant carbon allocation (for N) and microbial function (pH). 1 were unaffected by CO 2 enrichment, then microbial decomposition would change proportionally with the size of the soil C pool. Chandrashekara Kerala Forest Research Institute Sub Centre, Nilambur 1. mental sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition. Litterfall for bay laurel (Umbellaria californica)was generally low compared to other species and increased steadily over the observation period. JOBBÁGY1,2,* and ROBERT B. , 2010) indicating the need to incorporate these microbial mechanisms into large-scale earth system models to quantify carbon dynamics under. Urbanization effects on leaf litter decomposition, foliar nutrient dynamics and aboveground net primary productivity in the subtropics Heather A. Decomposition is essentially a process of breakdown of the organic matter carbon skeleton with consequent liberation of energy. Decomposition and N Cycling Changes in Redwood Forests Caused by Sudden Oak Death 359 Results Litterfall amounts were variable across seasons and among species. Wood and Leaf Litter Decomposition and_ok. The amount of litterfall and the rate of decomposition are expected to vary with stand age and climate. Litterfall and wood production recovered rapidly following cessation of the drought. Sklar3, Eric Cline3, and Thomas Dreschel. pseudoacacia were observed, while litterfall in P. It is the first intersite litter decomposition experiment in China. That is, C loss from decomposition would increase with CO 2 enrichment because the pool of soil C increased, not because the rate of decomposition (i. Harpaphe haydeniana is an important part of the forest ecosystem here in the Pacific Northwest with its role in regulation of plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. DETERMINATION OF THE DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS OF CALCIUM OXALATE USING THERMAL GRAVIMETRY AND INFRARED SPECTROMETRY Objective: The objectives of this experiment are: (1) to determine the stability of various decomposition products of calcium oxalat e using thermal gravimetry. W ieder,^’^ Cory C. Total annual litter fall in four communities varied from 2950. Litterfall for bay laurel (Umbellaria californica)was generally low compared to other species and increased steadily over the observation period. Litter decomposition and nutrient cycling, although controlled by climate, vegetation and soil communities, are highly spatially and temporally variable. oocarpa stands and 2) to compare seasonal growth. This study was carried out to evaluate C and N status of litterfall, litter decomposition decomposition Subject Category: Miscellaneous. In forest ecosystems, plant litter is mainly non-woody is composition, derived from aboveground productivity such as leaves and twigs, and belowground productivity such as fine roots, and roots productivity can be similar in magnitude to leaf productivity []. Litterfall and subsequent decomposition is an impor-tant pathway of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) transfer in forest ecosystems. 2008; Meier and Bowman 2008), the lower initial litter C/N ratio in more species-rich plots in our study could accelerate decomposition and nitrogen mineralization. CHAPMAN,1 STEPHEN C. , which are dominant tree species in the site. If the decomposition rate constant k of soil C in Eq. Stephen1,7 1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 USA. Rodriguez-Iturbe c. Our results suggest tropical forests are a non‐Liebig world of multiple nutrient limitations, with at least four elements shaping rates of litterfall and decomposition. Total annual litterfall was 5,627kg/ha/yr and leaf litter account for 61% of the litterfall. Bridal creeper invasion alters nutrient cycling and increases available soil nutrients Pete Turner, John Scott & Helen Spafford Barrier to recovery. , 1997), many studies have recognized that soil fauna significantly affects decom-. Decomposition of leaf litter includes microbial immobilization of nitrogen (N), followed by N mineralization. Decomposition is a key ecological process that roughly balances net primary production in terrestrial ecosystems and is an essential process in resupplying nutrients to the plant community. armandii followed a unimodal distribution pattern, which were similar to. This encapsulates the processes of plant litterfall, litter decomposition and nutrient release. Introduction. and Nilsson, M-C. 1) Evidence for climate change in the Pacific Northwest 2) Influence of climate change on ecosystems 3) Effects of climate change on soil microbes and decomposition 4) Importance of lignicolous fungi. WHITHAM,1 AND GEORGE W. Stand productivity was evaluated based on aboveground litterfall production, which has been correlated to the total net primary production and has been used to represent the labile input available to decomposition under a forest ecosystem in previous studies (Bond-Lamberty and Thomson 2010). Singh KP, Singh PK, Tripathi SK. After their collection, the litterfall samples were sorted into litter-leaf, litter-branches, litter-flowers, litter-fruits, and miscellaneous fractions. Most soil carbon decomposition mod- Litterfall, as part. Sklar3, Eric Cline3, and Thomas Dreschel. Decomposition consists of three concurrent processes: communition or fragmentation, leaching of water-soluble compounds, and microbial catabolism. Abstract: Litterfall plays a key role in the dynamic of forest ecosystems, ultimately determining forest productivity and carbon and nutrient cycling. Soil quality determines the quantity and quality of foods grown. -Most studies of deciduous forest litter decomposition have been no longer than 3 yr. Question: The Mechanism For The Decomposition Of NO2Cl Is: K-1 NO2 + Cl K1 K2 NO2Cl + Cl ---> NO2 + Cl2 By Making A Steady-state Approximation For [Cl], Express The Rate Of Appearance Of Cl2 In Terms Of The Concentrations Of NO2Cl And NO2. LEFT*, WILLIAM R. The soil textures were loam and sandy loam. (A) Remaining mass in litterbags after 30 and 270 days of decomposition in the field for each litter condition decomposed in the same site of production, (B) Effect of litter quality over remaining mass at 30 days and 270 days, and (C) Effect of site over remaining mass at 30 and 270 days. Carbon stocks in the dead organic matter pool changes as a result of decomposition and litterfall. Heterotrophic metabolism, facilitated through comminution. Net inputs of carbon into the soil pool via litterfall declined below control levels for at least 7 yr after tree planting. Decomposition Annual R. and N cycling and decomposition dynamics across the landscape in a region impacted by N deposition. Zatterab, Ruth M. 8 km2 and is dominated by red. Soluble C was not higher in fertilized foliage and litter in a number of studies [9,16,17] suggesting fertilization may not increase forest floor decomposition rates by this mechanism. Stand productivity was evaluated based on aboveground litterfall production, which has been correlated to the total net primary production and has been used to represent the labile input available to decomposition under a forest ecosystem in previous studies (Bond-Lamberty and Thomson 2010). Tree species diversity might thus promote productivity by. , k) increased. I'm an ecosystem ecologist and Lecturer in Ecology at the Lancaster Environment Centre. Recommend Documents. We measured ecosystem N loss via fire by comparing N pools. This mechanism may retain N in some forests. Heterotrophic metabolism, facilitated through comminution. After their collection, the litterfall samples were sorted into litter-leaf, litter-branches, litter-flowers, litter-fruits, and miscellaneous fractions. decomposition there was an initial mass loss of nutrients from both leaves and twigs, followed by immobilization of N and P. ResultsTwo major peaks of total litterfall in R. 8 km2 and is dominated by red. Paul, MN 55108, USA In a review published over two decades ago I asserted that, along soil fertility gradients, plant traits change in ways that reinforce patterns of soil fertility and net. , 2010) indicating the need to incorporate these microbial mechanisms into large-scale earth system models to quantify carbon dynamics under. Multiple metallomic enzymes and cofactors likely create gradients in the break down of leaf litter. [Methods] A litterfall manipulation experiment was conducted in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations and secondary Castanopsis carlesii forest stands in Chenda Township of Sanming City in Fujian Province, China, from January 2013 to December 2014, with treatments of litterfall exclusion, litter addition, and control (normal litterfall condition). ) stand located in Middle Pomerania. Townsend^ ^Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 USA. Sklar3, Eric Cline3, and Thomas Dreschel. The lack of litterfall effect thus questions common model assumptions and suggests that there are non-linear effects induced. ResultsTwo major peaks of total litterfall in R. Both ANPP and production per unit leaf area increased in response to increased P availability. Herbivore alteration of litter inputs may change litter decomposition rates and influence ecosystem nutrient cycling. on decomposition [13-15] where a fraction of this C is used to produce additional enzymes, stimulating decomposition [13]. The decomposition of forest floor biomass and litter were determined by temperature of the region. However, seasonal cycles of precipitation, litterfall, and decomposition are often confounded in ways that limit our ability to quantify the relative importance of these interacting factors from seasonal observations of gaseous fluxes. Early-stage leaf litter decomposition of Quercus potosina and Pinus cembroides and their controls were examined based on Ostrofsky's decomposition mechanisms. Nitrogen concentrations in living leaves, fresh litterfall, litter-layer and soil upper layers. The goal of SimSyC is to bridge the abstraction gap that exists between the algorithmic level and the lower levels. The comparison of the two dates allows us to determine the decomposition effect on early and late decomposition stages. 01 t C ha-1 and 59. The Long-Term Intersite Decomposition Experi-ment in China (hereafter referred to as LTIDE-China) was launched in 2002. Rosi-Marshall2,4, Natalie A. This discrepancy indicates a significant gap in our mechanistic understanding of carbon and nutrient cycling in these systems. Litterfall and its subsequent decomposition are important feedback mechanisms in the intrasystem cycling of nutrients in forest ecosystems. Litterfall for bay laurel (Umbellaria californica)was generally low compared to other species and increased steadily over the observation period. The release of nutrients from the decomposing litter was in the order Mg > N > Ca > P > K. INTRODUCTION Research on the mechanism is the process of human understanding of nature and the transformation of nature,. Given a specification of the background litterfall rate (, s-1), litterfall carbon fluxes are calculated as. The litterfall decomposition rate in tropical forest zone was highest decomposition rate or k ranges 0. Rodriguez-Iturbe c. Zipperer & Greg L. Litter decomposition and SOM stabilization can be affected by the identities of the soil organisms that perform decomposition. Our results suggest tropical forests are a non‐Liebig world of multiple nutrient limitations, with at least four elements shaping rates of litterfall and decomposition. Townsend^ ^Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 USA. Meier, John A. Karberg, Neal A. Stem growth and ANPP decreased for a year and then recovered to near pre-hurricanevalues. Together, these results show that both N addition and acidification can suppress decomposition rates, but likely for different reasons that may be linked to plant carbon allocation (for N) and microbial function (pH). Tupelo (Nyssa spp. Stephen1,7 1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 USA. Soil Science Society of America Journal Abstract - positive feedback mechanism that influences N mineralization. Both ANPP and production per unit leaf area increased in response to increased P availability. Aporte, descomposición de hojarasca y mineralización de nitrógeno en bosques siempreverdes de antiguo crecimiento y bosques secundarios deciduos, centro-sur de Chile. 2008; Meier and Bowman 2008), the lower initial litter C/N ratio in more species-rich plots in our study could accelerate decomposition and nitrogen mineralization. Dent Æ Robert Bagchi Æ David Robinson Æ Noreen Majalap-Lee Æ David F. 9 µg/m(2) ), not related to forest type. Herbivore alteration of litter inputs may change litter decomposition rates and influence ecosystem nutrient cycling. WHITHAM,1 AND GEORGE W. Soil at the site is a highly weathered clay ultisol that formed on the Osa basaltic complex (Berrange & Thorpe, 1988). Nutrient fluxes via litterfall and leaf litter decomposition - CiteSeerX. 8% greater than those in the secondary forest, respectively, while the decomposition rate of leaf litter in the plantation was 23. If the decomposition rate constant k of soil C in Eq. Correlations between decomposition' and concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg in residual material for each type of litter are examined. , 1997), many studies have recognized that soil fauna significantly affects decom-. The size of various fluxes can vary widely. Graeme Lockaby, William H. INSECT HERBIVORY INCREASES LITTER QUALITY AND DECOMPOSITION: AN EXTENSION OF THE ACCELERATION HYPOTHESIS SAMANTHA K. Porporato b,c, I. Controls over leaf litter decomposition in wet tropical forests W illiam R. Decomposition and N Cycling Changes in Redwood Forests Caused by Sudden Oak Death 359 Results Litterfall amounts were variable across seasons and among species. 05 Jan 2010. Rates of decomposition of koa, ohia, and banana poka leaf litter are estimated. decomposition there was an initial mass loss of nutrients from both leaves and twigs, followed by immobilization of N and P. Redwood litterfall often exceeded that of other species by at least two fold and had pronounced peaks during April and reached the highest levels in autumn (August through October). Proceedings of 13th International Conference of the Soil Tillage for Crop Production and Protection of the Environment, Aalborg, Denmark, Vol. 2010 in a 120-year old beech (Fagus sylvatica L. B) • Litterfall production and nutrient return to the forest floor 69 litterfall trap. Our results suggest that a seasonal pattern in community‐level leaf fall is regulated by the annual cycle of meteorological factors, even in this aseasonal environment, which experiences no dry season. ) stand located in Middle Pomerania. Data collected included litterfall at monthly intervals from October 2016 to April 2017, as well as decomposition conditions for assessment at the end of the experimental trials. 8 km2 and is dominated by red. Litterfall and wood production recovered rapidly following cessation of the drought. TAYLORft, ALAN R. A review of allochthonous organic matter dynamics and metabolism in streams Jennifer L. This study examines the effects of micro-environmental factors on seasonal litterfall dynamics in the forests of Putuoshan Island, Zhejiang Province of eastern China. mental sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition. We deter-mined decomposition rates of litter and faces in situ. The amount of water in the soil, both indirectly and directly, affects the decomposition rate of organic matter. Notably, no significant effects of annual litterfall on SOC concentration were found, even though higher litterfall implies higher SOC in the formulations of soil carbon models based on first-order decomposition kinetics. Relative effect of litter quality, forest type and their interaction on leaf decomposition in south-east Brazilian forests - Volume 24 Issue 2 - Camila de Toledo Castanho, Alexandre Adalardo de Oliveira. The Long-Term Intersite Decomposition Experi-ment in China (hereafter referred to as LTIDE-China) was launched in 2002. Meier, John A. Our results suggest that a seasonal pattern in community‐level leaf fall is regulated by the annual cycle of meteorological factors, even in this aseasonal environment, which experiences no dry season. JOBBÁGY1,2,* and ROBERT B. HFA of litter decomposition was explored by reciprocal leaf litter translocation experiments, and leaves were analyzed for C, N, and P during decomposition of 297 days. Giardina Abstract Litterfall in terrestrial ecosystems represents the primary pathway for nutrient return to soil. Decomposition experiment was carried out at three different locations within the oligohaline zone of the Sundarbans mangrove forest. Litterfall for bay laurel (Umbellaria californica)was generally low compared to other species and increased steadily over the observation period. A significant amount of research activity has been focused on predicted climate change effects on the decomposition of litter as it is the primary mechanism by which organic matter and nutrients are returned to the. TOWNSENDft §, DIANA R. ing plant growth and litterfall, and microbial activity, which may positively influence both abi-otic and biotic decomposition. Tank1,3, Emma J. OIKOS 115: 453 462, 2006 Changes in the ratio of twig to foliage in litterfall with species composition, and consequences for decomposition across a long term chronosequence Fiona M. Zatterab, Ruth M. For almost all kinds of forest, the massive litterfall occurs yearly during certain periods, depending on the phenology of the dominant species[11]. Tree Islands: Production and Decomposition Affected By Water Levels Leonard J. Further, we investigated the associations between decomposition rates and previously measured 978 Falcataria Invasion Alters Decomposition in Hawai'i. , Dehlin, H. In a semiarid woodland at Sunset Crater National Monument, Arizona, long-term insect herbivore removal experiments and the presence of herbivore resistant and susceptible pinyon pines (Pinus edulis) have allowed characterization of the population- and community-level effects of. The more important effect of community‐weighted mean litterfall quality than litter quantity on the decomposition of two distinct substrates we found here suggests that the physical and chemical characteristics of litterfall regulate the local decomposer communities, and thereby alter the decomposition environment, as also found in a. Further monitoring and analyses are required to clarify spatial variation and long‐term patterns in litterfall and their mechanisms. Studies Tropical Ecology, Ecosystems Ecology, and Biodiversity. Harpaphe haydeniana is an important part of the forest ecosystem here in the Pacific Northwest with its role in regulation of plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. Keywords—Litterfall, Litter decomposition, Carbon, Nitrogen, Land use, Huai Lam Kradon subwatershed. In tropical rainforests, there is a thin litter layer due to the rapid decomposition, while in boreal forests, the rate of decomposition is slower and leads to the accumulation of a thick litter layer, also known as a mor. 05 Jan 2010. Soil Science Society of America Journal Abstract - Wheat Straw Composition and Placement Effects on Decomposition in Decomposition of chestnut litterfall and. Annual litterfall biomass and nutrient masses returning to the forest floor are estimated. 8 km2 and is dominated by red. Leaf decomposition was highly species dependent. This study was carried out to evaluate C and N status of litterfall, litter decomposition decomposition Subject Category: Miscellaneous. txt) or read online. A review of allochthonous organic matter dynamics and metabolism in streams Jennifer L. Decomposition Annual R. Question Do coexisting plant life forms differ in overall phenology, leaf traits and patterns of leaf litterfall?Location: Patagonian Monte, Chubut Province, Argentina. Litterfall was sampled bi-weekly during the snow-free period (May to November, depending on the latitude of the plot), and once at the end of winter. see more details (N) status in forest ecosystems can change upon establishment of plantations because different tree species have different nutrient cycling mechanisms. FOLIAR NUTRIENT RESORPTION AND LITTERFALL PRODUCTION WITH STAND AGE, OVERSTORY COMPOSITION, AND DISTURBANCE ORIGIN IN BOREAL FORESTS By Amber Nadine Brant A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Forestry Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University August 2014. NEMERGUTt§, A. Rainwater leaching and the activities of small insects do not lead straight to CO 2 release to the atmosphere, even though they support litter decomposition. with litterfall and litter decomposition in. STUART GRANDYH andCORY C. 5 years of decomposition in the field. DOdorico a,*, F. The responses of litter decomposition to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions were examined in an old-growth tropical forest in southern China to test the following hypotheses: (1) N addition would decrease litter decomposition; (2) P addition would increase litter decomposition, and (3) P addition would mitigate the inhibitive effect of N addition. Experimental design In April 2007, we initiated a leaf litter manipulation experi-. Somers # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015 Abstract Urbanization can alter nutrient cycling. Litter decomposition and SOM stabilization can be affected by the identities of the soil organisms that perform decomposition. Dissolved mineral nutrients are absorbed by plants via roots and move upward in the xylem with the transpiration water stream into leaves. enl EndNote 10044 10044 27 HFpubs. Microbial soil model and boreal forest Y. oliveri was 0. Forest Floor Decomposition Following Hurricane Litter Inputs in Several Puerto Rican Forests Rebecca Ostertag,1,2* Frederick N. A significant amount of research activity has been focused on predicted climate change effects on the decomposition of litter as it is the primary mechanism by which organic matter and nutrients are returned to the. 05), whereas litter decomposition rates were not different between the stands. One litterbag for each treatment per tree was harvested at 30 and 270 days after the bags were placed (five bags for each treatment). A proposed mechanism for the pulse in carbon dioxide production commonly observed following the rapid rewetting of a dry soil. The effects of the understory on litter decomposition and soil respiration should be considered in ecosystem carbon models. TAYLORft, ALAN R. The journal is divided into 81 subject areas. see more details (N) status in forest ecosystems can change upon establishment of plantations because different tree species have different nutrient cycling mechanisms. This encapsulates the processes of plant litterfall, litter decomposition and nutrient release. Urbanization effects on leaf litter decomposition, foliar nutrient dynamics and aboveground net primary productivity in the subtropics Heather A. Increasing our understanding on the role of structural and environmental factors controlling litterfall amount and seasonality is of paramount importance for modelling and estimating soil carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling under climate. Production, decomposition, and release of nutrients from leaf and nonleaf litter were investigated in four subalpine forests of North-West Himalaya, India. Graeme Lockaby & Wayne C. Powers,6 Michael Kaspari,7 Milton N. with litterfall and litter decomposition in. Decomposition of plant residues in soil under different management. In this study, we analyzed mass loss and decomposition rates of leaf litter during 0–2. Leaf decomposition was highly species dependent. armandii followed a unimodal distribution pattern, which were similar to seasonal. Forest floor mass and aboveground litterfall in the plantation were 168% and 22. 9 µg/m(2) ), not related to forest type. This encapsulates the processes of plant litterfall, litter decomposition and nutrient release. (2) to identify the evolved gasses resulting from the decomposition of. TAYLORft, ALAN R. In mixed forest, chemical interactions occurring through precipitation turn mechanisms of litter decomposition very uncertain and difficult to predict. Bridal creeper invasion alters nutrient cycling and increases available soil nutrients Pete Turner, John Scott & Helen Spafford Barrier to recovery. TOWNSENDft §, DIANA R. We extend this work to understand the temporal distribution of litterfall and litter decomposability in order to better com-. Giardina Abstract Litterfall in terrestrial ecosystems represents the primary pathway for nutrient return to soil. 3% lower than that in the secondary forest. This study was carried out to evaluate C and N status of litterfall, litter decomposition decomposition Subject Category: Miscellaneous. Keywords—Litterfall, Litter decomposition, Carbon, Nitrogen, Land use, Huai Lam Kradon subwatershed. This study examines the effects of micro-environmental factors on seasonal litterfall dynamics in the forests of Putuoshan Island, Zhejiang Province of eastern China. The decomposition of organic matter exists as a principal mechanism for supplying available nutrients in most terrestrial ecosystems. WHITHAM,1 AND GEORGE W. Decomposition Annual R. Specifically, litterfall declines with increasing latitude. Multiple metallomic enzymes and cofactors likely create gradients in the break down of leaf litter. Tanoak litterfall was the. Dearden, Helena Dehlin, David A. Production, decomposition, and release of nutrients from leaf and nonleaf litter were investigated in four subalpine forests of North-West Himalaya, India. Harms, '5 Jennifer S. Studies of plant litterfall mass, its dynamics, structure and chemical composition were conducted between 2007. Indirectly, a wet soil results in a slower break down because water fills the air. Rates of decomposition of koa, ohia, and banana poka leaf litter are estimated. If the decomposition rate constant k of soil C in Eq. For example, nutrient uptake mechanisms such as interna! translocation from senescing needles or from litterfall decomposition could be especially important. The comparison of the two dates allows us to determine the decomposition effect on early and late decomposition stages. These results indicate that litterfall interception changed carbon flow between aboveground and belowground through litter decomposition and soil respiration, which changed carbon cycling in eucalyptus plantations. HART,2 NEIL S. Their major role in decomposition is specifically in the modification in the physical and chemical character of the litter. (2014), who quantified spatial variabil-ity in litterfall rates, litter quality and leaf decomposability. Introduction In a broad sense, ecosystem services refer to the range of conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that they contain, help sustain and fulfil human life (Daily, 1997). , and Greene S. Materials and methods Experimental site Our research was conducted at the Chronic Nitrogen Amendment Experiment at the Harvard Forest Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in Petersham, MA, USA. The decomposition coefficient k calculated from litterfall and litter standing crop ranged from 1. In a semiarid woodland at Sunset Crater National Monument, Arizona, long-term insect herbivore removal experiments and the presence of herbivore resistant and susceptible pinyon pines (Pinus edulis) have allowed characterization of the population- and community-level effects of. Rainwater leaching and the activities of small insects do not lead straight to CO 2 release to the atmosphere, even though they support litter decomposition. Dearden, Helena Dehlin, David A. the soil and describes the status of carbon and nitrogen in vegetation, litterfall, litter-layer and soil upper layers along the main positions of a topographic gradient (plateau, slope and valley), 60km north of Manaus, on Cuieiras Reserve watershed. STUART GRANDYH andCORY C. Proceedings of 13th International Conference of the Soil Tillage for Crop Production and Protection of the Environment, Aalborg, Denmark, Vol. Keywords—Litterfall, Litter decomposition, Carbon, Nitrogen, Land use, Huai Lam Kradon subwatershed.